Tag: featured

Fact-checking the racists: A look at the psychological approach of Ireland’s alt-right

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Releasing the Genie

Notwithstanding frantic after-the-fact efforts to rehabilitate the town’s reputation, there is little doubt that alt-right/far-right extremists successfully infiltrated that public meeting in Oughterard.

The townspeople currently protesting the proposed Direct Provision facility (Ireland’s version of an asylum seeker reception centre) are not members of any far-right organisation. They are just ordinary citizens.

However, these ordinary citizens wouldn’t be protesting were it not for organised efforts by far-right extremists to provoke them into doing so.

They wouldn’t be there — holding signs and patrolling the grounds, twenty-four hours a day — if not for a co-ordinated campaign of far-right fear-mongering, deliberately designed to infuse xenophobia into what was previously a harmonious and peaceful rural community.

Let me be specific:

  • TV crews were not allowed to film inside the meeting. However, the meeting was filmed by a prominent far-right vlogger, who posted videos of proceedings online. He travelled to Oughterard specifically for the event.
  • I have been told that buses with people from outside Oughterard arrived in advance of the meeting. Recall that up to then the meeting was publicised mainly on Facebook, via a page moderated by people with far-right links.
  • A ‘fact’ sheet was circulated to attendees, which contained highly misleading information about asylum seekers (more on this below), suggesting an organised effort at co-ordinated messaging.
  • The chair of the local branch of the far-right National Party spoke at the meeting. He did not, however, introduce himself as a representative of that party, but rather presented himself as a concerned ordinary local person.
  • The tone and content of speeches, and that of the ‘fact’ sheet, completely belie any claim that the organisers were concerned about the “inhumane” nature of Ireland’s Direct Provision system. In fact, there was no mention of the word “inhumane” in the campaign until after the Oughterard meeting had begun to attract negative media attention. The Facebook page was originally called ‘Stop Connemara Gateway Hotel Direct Provision Centre.’ After the controversy exploded, it changed its name, becoming ‘Oughterard Says No to Inhumane Direct Provision Centre.’

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A Useful Idiot

So how exactly did the alt-right succeed in creating so much turmoil in a previously ordinary rural Irish community? Psychologists have been studying the alt-right, and their far-right predecessors, for many years. As always, these people follow a well-worn playbook. The unsettling reality is that, around the world, their tactics are consistently successful.

At the Oughterard meeting, member of the Irish parliament Noel Grealish became notorious for his racist remarks. Among other slurs, he claimed that “Africans” seeking asylum were in fact “economic migrants” coming to “sponge off the system here in Ireland.” He was particularly concerned that these asylum seekers were not “Christians.”

I doubt Grealish had read the psychological research. Nonetheless, without prodding, he successfully spouted off a burst of soundbites straight from the alt-right playbook. Around the world, the far right succeed most when they dehumanise out-groups, focus on how “we” are losing out or are being “betrayed, normalise anti-African hostility, and promote an authoritarian focus on rules and rule-breaking. Grealish did all of this, in a rural Irish accent.

It may seem a bit churlish to point this out, but on his personal website, the very same Noel Grealish describes how many of his own family are themselves economic migrants:

Like so many in the West of Ireland, many of the Grealish family had to emigrate in search of work — at one point there were seven of them abroad, and currently Noel has three siblings living in Boston and one each in Copenhagen, Chicago and Nebraska.

However, as I stated previously, Grealish is just a patsy. A gullible loudmouth willing to throw pre-election fuel on a fire lit by cleverer, less visible actors. A good example of what people who study political extremism refer to as “a useful idiot.”

Grealish takes all the flak, while the Facebook fascists leave town unscathed and move on to their next campaign.

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Whoever Controls the Narrative Wins the Day

The key to turning a crowd is to get in early. Psychologists call this the primacy effect. It doesn’t matter if your facts are spurious. The research shows that once a community’s fears have been stoked, the bad feeling can be very hard to remove. Lies have a much longer half-life than truth.

People are more likely to believe the stuff they hear first, and less likely to accept the contradictions that come later. We stick to initial information even when we are presented with evidence that it is wrong. In fact, when challenged, we often dig in and become defensive, a problem psychologists refer to as backfire.

Conspiracy theorists have convinced millions of people around the world that climate change is not real, that vaccinations are dangerous, and that the Holocaust never happened. Heck, some people still believe that the earth is flat.

This is the psychology of mass evidentiary reasoning. By nature, human beings are trusting. Their default reaction is to believe. It is why eye-witness testimony is so compelling (even though we all know that hearsay is unreliable), and why misinformation spreads so widely.

The residents of Oughterard are not stupid. They are simply human.

When we hear speakers at a meeting, we presume they know what they are talking about. People who are skilled at manipulating public opinion play on this tendency. In short, they knowingly lie to us, aware that most of us will take their words at face value.

We are all susceptible to being influenced by this effect.

The default belief-reaction is a key psychological factor that enables the alt-right to pursue their racist agenda. In practice, the task is straightforward: attend a meeting, mouth some extravagant claims, and let the audience’s belief-response run amok. If you nudge the narrative correctly, the crowd’s natural reactions will do most of the real work. Before you know it, tempers are flaring and chaos has been unleashed.

It’s basically intellectual hooliganism. Pile in, get the blood boiling, and stand back and watch the carnage.

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Manufacturing ‘Truthiness’

It sounds obvious, but an audience will trust information if they believe it to be true. The best way to achieve that is through presentation. Make the information look ‘official’. Make it look real.

Make it look scientific. Provide lots of charts, numbers, and jargon. Refer to ‘official’ reports. Use numbers. Numbers are particularly effective (I’ve written elsewhere about the power of illusory precision). Throw in some percentages and decimal points. After all that, people will just assume you have done your due diligence.

This imitation of accuracy, in the absence of actual accuracy, is called pseudoscience. I’ve been writing about pseudoscience for years. From dubious advertising, to conspiracy theories, to common myths and prejudices, the world is absolutely full of it. Data in the absence of fact-checking. Opinion without transparency. So-called ‘information’ produced with zero quality control.

And so here we have Exhibit A: The Alt-Right’s Oughterard ‘Fact’ Sheet, the flier handed to people as they turned up at the door:

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Very quickly, here are some points:

  • No information is presented on who produced this ‘Fact’ Sheet. It is anonymous.
  • The content, however, resembles that of a notorious YouTube video popularly associated with the alt-right in Ireland. The maker of that video was present, in person, at the meeting.
  • Note that there is no mention of the “inhumane” nature of Ireland’s Direct Provision system. Remember, that idea came later, only after negative media attention.
  • In the section on ‘Dubious Claims’, it is stated that most of Ireland’s asylum seekers come from countries like Georgia, Albania, and even Pakistan (note: while these countries might be deemed ‘safe’, it is still possible to be persecuted in each). If anything, this should imply that the numbers coming from African countries are relatively low. So why then did most of the Oughterard meeting focus on “Africans”?
  • The section on ‘Never Deported’ implies that 90% of asylum applications in Ireland “fail”. This is factually inaccurate. Only 15% of decisions on asylum applications are rejected. There is a big difference between 90% and 15%, so we cannot put this divergence down to a margin-of-error problem. It’s just a lie.
  • The section on ‘Single Men’ simply tells us that some asylum seekers are, well, single men. As explained above, the allusion here is to sex crime. The only purpose of this information is to plant the seeds of rape paranoia in the audience.
  • The section on ‘Money Racket’ presents some out-of-context spending figures, combining periods of twelve, and then five, years. There is no baseline comparison (in other words, does this expenditure represent good or bad value?). In public expenditure terms, the monies involved seem small. For example, the revenue to Fazyard suggests that the system costs around 10 cent per taxpayer every month. This type of detail should matter much more than some Clip Art of a sack of money. But psychologically, Clip Art is more effective.
  • The section on ‘Stretched Resources’ talks about schools and police stations. However, this is all based on a status quo error (specifically: if children were placed into Direct Provision in Oughterard, the local school would be funded to recruit more teachers, special-needs assistants, and so on). This section also complains about planning permission. However, as I pointed out before, the population of Oughterard is already expanding without controversy. New houses for hundreds of inhabitants have recently been approved, and there were no protests about schools or police stations when they were announced.

It is not the anti-racism campaigners who believe that ordinary people are stupid. It’s the alt-right who do that: they freely put forward bogus factoids and junk stats with the clear expectation that local people will be so dumb as to just gullibly lap it all up.

Please concentrate on this. Spread the word. These alt-right/far-right agitators believe that YOU are stupid. In fact, this belief is their core working assumption.

Awareness is key. The alt-right rely on the mainstream media to report the fuss they cause, to describe their grievances, but also — crucially — to gloss over their racism.

I’ve said it before and I’m sure I’ll say it again.

The people of Oughterard really do deserve better than this.

The Triumph of Eminence-Based Medicine

Lines are drawn

A quarter of a million Britons have been diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), the condition also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). ME/CFS is a severe debilitating illness that renders patients either temporarily or perennially immobile. Sufferers will have often led very active lives before being struck down. After onset, they are forced to give up work or education. Many patients become bedridden for decades. People with ME/CFS experience a full syndrome’s worth of symptoms, dominated by ‘crashes’ of extreme unrelievable tiredness (formally referred to as ‘post-exertional malaise’), along with muscle weakness, digestive problems, pain, and hypersensitivity to light or sound.

The World Health Organisation classified ME/CFS as a neurological disease as far back as 1969. Since then, extensive research has shown that ME/CFS involves disruption of several bodily systems, including the nervous, immune, endocrine, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Recent studies have revealed extensive cell-functioning impairment arising from irregularities in patients’ DNA.

Despite all the signs that ME/CFS is an organic disease, the precise biomechanics — and therefore, the most appropriate biomedical treatments — are still unclear. Some patients seem to do well with rintatolimod, an immunostimulant, but not enough to suggest it as a universal therapy.

But if you don’t have ME/CFS or know someone who has, chances are you’ve heard of it anyway. Most likely you will know that the condition is controversial. This is because, well, it is. From diagnostics to treatment to research, the world of ME/CFS is mired in never-ending acrimony. Some researchers claim to have been threatened with violence. A number have won humanitarian awards for standing up for their clinical views. Doctors defending medicine — from patients.

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“All in the mind”

A recurring problem relates to how some doctors perceive the nature of ME/CFS, and the treatment decisions that flow from their assumptions. In Britain especially, the dominant clinical view is that ME/CFS is effectively a psychogenic disorder — one that is caused, or at least exacerbated, by patients’ thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs — and not a truly organic illness that involves irregular body chemistry, treatable using pharmacological or surgical intervention.

In other words, in Britain the ME/CFS world is dominated by psychologists, psychiatrists, and behavioural practitioners. Accordingly, the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) have adopted guidelines stating that ME/CFS should be treated using either cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), graded exercise therapy (GET), or a combination of the two.

For years, patients have complained that these treatments are of no use. GET is especially disliked. For most people with ME/CFS, exercise leads to extreme pain and debilitation. The very thought of more physical activity is abhorrent. The fact that doctors prescribe exercise as therapy, and dismiss patients as malingerers when they refuse to comply, is endlessly horrifying. In the minds of some, it is little short of cruel and inhumane abuse.

Many UK clinicians are dogged in their defence of what has become known as the biopsychosocial model of ME/CFS. This is despite the physiological science that suggests they are wrong. Such is the root of the controversy: these doctors are sticking to their guns no matter what scientists — or patients — have to say.

British clinicians, you see, have done their own research, duly published in the best medical journals. They say their findings justify the use of CBT and GET — and nothing else — to treat ME/CFS. Unfortunately, their research serves to compound the controversy, rather than to calm it. The very fact these medics refuse to budge in the face of criticism makes the whole situation worse. The atmosphere has become truly toxic. Patients are haughtily dismissed as aggressive and unreasonable know-nothings.

It’s no wonder they are angry.

Keeping PACE

One of the biggest ever psychology studies to be conducted in a healthcare setting in Britain was the PACE Trial, a five-year investigation involving more than six hundred patients that set out to test the effectiveness of CBT and GET as treatments for ME/CFS. Since its inception in 2005, the PACE Trial has been plagued by problems, ranging from disputed diagnostics, to legal proceedings, to claims of dodgy data. In truth, the study’s a right mess.

Despite being extremely well resourced — and its main results appearing in The Lancet, no less — the PACE Trial contained a number of highly odd design features. For example, it relied heavily on self-report measures, but did not employ blinding. Any psychology undergraduate will tell you that self-report studies need to be blinded. Therefore — by design — the PACE Trial stands as a textbook example of bad research. (Literally, this year, it has appeared as such in a textbook.)

As a result of this flaw, we know that the PACE Trial findings must be untrustworthy. This is even before we see any data. The research was holed below the waterline from the very beginning.

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Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

As it happens, the data make for gruesome viewing. The biggest defects relate to outcome-switching. After the PACE Trial investigators began their research — presumably, once they crunched some numbers — they decided to change their definition of “recovery”. They did this by reducing the threshold of (self-reported) physical fitness required for patients to be deemed “well”. In short, they moved the goalposts.

This allowed them to report that one-in-five patients were classified as “recovered” when treated with CBT or GET, a lot more than would have been the case had they stuck to the original study protocol. The problem is that they forgot to do anything about the threshold they set for patients to be declared “sick” in the first place. Hilariously (in the ‘gallows humour’ sense), the result of their on-the-hoof adjustments was that their new threshold for “recovery” was now below the threshold for “sickness”.

Patients could be classified as “recovered” even if their scores for physical well-being declined. Somewhere in the region of one-in-eight patients fell into this surreal category. These patients were sick enough to take part. Their conditions deteriorated after therapy. But the investigators still presented their trajectories as evidence that the PACE Trial treatments had worked.

A lay person would be forgiven for calling this method “absurd”.

To say that the PACE Trial is an extremely weak study is to understate an obvious calamity. Such has been the resulting criticism from around the world that last year the Journal of Health Psychology was able to set aside an entire issue just to publish peer-reviewed articles tearing the PACE Trial to smithereens.

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In Psychology in Crisis, I use the PACE Trial as an archetypal example of bad psychological science. It is truly emblematic of the chaos currently engulfing psychology. In recent years paranoia about psychology’s poor replication record has become endemic. Studies like PACE make psychology seem a truly dubious endeavour, and worsen the field’s already dodgy reputation. For scientifically-minded psychologists, it is the stuff of nightmares.

But the PACE Trial is not just a case study in flawed research design and iffy methods. It also highlights the way professional politics can intrude on the scientific process. It shows us how professional groups sometimes try to face down objective criticism, look the other way when ineptitude is exposed, and doggedly stick to their guns in order to avoid threatening their own interests.

These days we have a term to describe how repeated mantra-like talking-points can be employed to suppress legitimate and objective rebuttals. We call it “post-truth” argumentation. Such gamesmanship is not confined to traditional politics. Psychologists can do “post-truth” too.

The world of clinical disease management, especially that of ME/CFS, is just as likely to become embroiled in a culture war.

Wagons being circled

Last month, Reuters published an exclusive story reporting how an influential Cochrane review, which had originally concluded that GET is an effective treatment for ME/CFS, is now to be “temporarily withdrawn” in light of “feedback” received regarding its methods and analysis. The review, published in 2017, had attracted scathing criticisms for what were identified as serious methodological flaws.

For example:

  • The sample of studies included was highly selective
  • Positive outcomes were exaggerated
  • An overall lack of significant treatment effects was either overlooked or misreported
  • Studies relying on self-report measures, which are usually considered weak in research terms, were analysed as though they were just as strong as studies that used objective measures
  • The reviewers decided to shift their analytic approach after they had started their work (in psychology, we might refer to this as “a pattern of behaviour”). Their adjustments ultimately enabled them to report maximum effects for GET. Deviating from pre-planned protocols is a huge risk to the validity of any review, and is contrary to Cochrane good practice guidelines.

Many observers also pointed out that the review’s authors included investigators involved in the now beleaguered PACE Trial, meaning that they were effectively involved in a process of marking their own homework.

These criticisms, along with many others, were formally submitted to Cochrane and are currently viewable on their website.

In explaining Cochrane’s decision, Reuters highlighted pressure from patient activists who object to ME/CFS being depicted as a psychological condition. Discernible in the Reuters report was the sound of professional wagons being circled. A former head of Britain’s Medical Research Council was quoted as complaining that withdrawal decisions should not be dictated by patient lobbying.

This week, the Guardian posted a ‘science’ podcast discussing the Cochrane review withdrawal. In the blurb, they perpetuated the (inaccurate) Reuters reporting line, embellishing it with their own reference to “verbal abuse”:

…researchers looking at efficacy of these therapies claim they are verbally abused. But now, it may have gone a step further. Reuters recently reported that ‘a respected science journal is to withdraw a much-cited review of evidence on an illness known as chronic fatigue syndrome amid fierce criticism and pressure from activists and patients.’

More strikingly — perhaps even suspiciously — the producers of the Guardian science podcast decided that this week’s guest should be none other than a colleague of one of the authors of the withdrawn Cochrane review, and — for good measure — himself an author of the maligned PACE trial. Not just marking his own homework anymore, but now — in defiance of expert criticism — defending how well it had been marked.

In post-truth terms, it all felt a bit like an episode of Fox & Friends.

Cochrane doesn’t withdraw reviews lightly. In reality, this review was withdrawn from the public record because for nearly two years independent researchers had highlighted a steady stream of specific scientific criticisms. The Editor in Chief of Cochrane stated clearly that “this is not about patient pressure.”

In other words, the methodological problems proved to be just too glaring. Someone who headed the Medical Research Council should really be able to see that, as should the producers of the Guardian’s science podcast.

Perhaps they are the ones who are succumbing to partisan pressures.

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Friends of friends

It is worrying that review practices intended to be scientifically objective seem so susceptible to distortion by social network effects, cultural etiquette, and a prerogative to preserve colleagues’ professional reputations.

The hegemony of the cognitive approach to ME/CFS is clearly partisan. It is at variance with much of the scientific literature. The very fact that its status is disputed exposes as logically unwise any claim that there is only one side to the ME/CFS story.  Its endurance results from professional politics, not scrupulous science.

It is eminence-based, rather than evidence-based, medicine.

It is also very much a British thing. The corresponding American authority — the National Academy of Medicine — has declared ME/CFS an organic condition requiring biomedical treatment. Its genetic and neurochemical signs are well recognised (although its precise physiology is not yet established), as are the damaging effects of exercise therapies of the kind promoted as standard in the UK. It is the British clinical professions whose establishments believe that ME/CFS is psychogenic, that its main dynamics are “all in the mind”.

Medical conditions are not supposed to vary by international border. An infection contracted in one country should be expressed the same anywhere, and biomedical treatments should have a uniform effect regardless of what nation you live in. That the UK is an outlier when it comes to ME/CFS simply makes no sense.

Except possibly in one respect. We should not see ME/CFS as resulting from mass cognitive hysteria among a quarter of a million UK citizens. Rather, we could see the biopsychosocial theory of ME/CFS as a grand sanctimonious delusion shared by a professional clique who, for circumstantial reasons, find themselves dominant in British behavioural healthcare.

The echo chamber in which reviewers review each other’s work, award each other’s grants, and line up as one other’s acolytes, suggests that little of this will change any time soon.

Bad science is bad enough when it is just science. In the case of ME/CFS, where flawed research materially damages the lives of hundreds of thousands of blameless people, it is nothing short of a scandal, about which the establishment should feel acute embarrassment and, ideally, shame.

* * *

 

Edited, 3/11/18: Description of podcast rephrased to clarify that its guest was a colleague of one of the Cochrane review authors, as well as an author of PACE trial 

A photo essay from Tuam, and its silent vigil for #TuamBabies

You may have read that the Pope was in Ireland. He’s just left. According to our bizarre national media, all went totally smoothly. This is despite the fact that attendances at the various Pope shindigs were pretty feeble, bringing to mind those that turned out for the inauguration of one President D. Trump over in America.

In Ireland, our broadcasters and newspapers often warn about the echo chamber of social media. But based on their unstinting efforts to propagandize on behalf of the establishment — be it social conservatives, hyper-Catholics, or nationalist politicians — it seems that it is our media who occupy an echo chamber of their own construction. They are the ones who sit around talking to themselves, listening to each other, and systematically reinforcing their own distorted perceptions of reality.

And, thus, they are the ones who keep getting everything wrong.

They got the Marriage Equality referendum wrong. They got the Abortion referendum wrong. And now, when it comes to bigging up the papacy, they got the people’s sentiments all wrong too.

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Juxtaposed with wall-to-wall TV coverage of the Pope surrounded by largely empty streets in Dublin city, and empty seats at his keynote mass, were the enthusiastic and vibrant crowds who gathered for defiant counter-protests organised by grassroots groups around the country.

For reasons I explained before, I attended the silent vigil in Tuam. I wrote previously about the context for this, so I won’t repeat it here. To be honest, it would be difficult to do that right now. I am emotionally burnt out with it all. It’s too heavy-duty. I don’t want to.

So, I took some pictures (and a couple of videos) instead. Here is my visual record of yesterday’s Tuam vigil, of a defiant throng seeking recognition, catharsis, space, and justice, of an outpouring of a people stepping into a new light post-Catholic totalitarianism, yearning to outgrow a disappearing ‘official’ Ireland and its lingering remnants in the Irish media echo chamber.

Here. Here is Tuam. Here is Ireland.

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And to Dunnes for the epilogue…

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In Memoriam:

Patrick Derrane 5 months
Mary Blake 4 months
Matthew Griffin 3 months
Mary Kelly 6 months
Peter Lally 11 months
Julia Hynes 1 year
James Murray 1 month
Joseph McWilliam 6 months
John Mullen 3 months
Mary Wade 3 years
Maud McTigue 6 years
Bernard Lynch 3 years
Martin Shaughnessy 18 months
Bridget Glynn 1 year
Margaret Glynn 1 year
Patrick Gorham 21 months
Patrick O’Connell 1 year
John Carty 21 months
Madeline Bernard 2 years
Maureen Kenny 8 years
Kathleen Donohue 1 year
Thomas Donelan 2 years
Mary Quilan 2 years
Mary King 9 months
Mary Warde 21 months
George Coyne 2 years
Julia Cummins 18 months
Barbara Fola/ Wallace 9 months
Pauline Carter 11 months
Mary Walsh 1 year
Annie Stankard 10 months
John Connelly 9 months
Anthony Cooke 1 month
Michael Casey 3 years
Annie McCarron 2 months
Patricia Dunne 2 months
John Carty 3 months
Peter McNamara 7 weeks
Mary Shaughnessy 4 months
Joseph Coen 5 months
Mary Murphy 2 months
Patrick Kelly 2 months
Martin Rabbitte 6 weeks
Kathleen Quinn 7 months
Patrick Halpin 2 months
Martin McGuinness 6 months
Mary Kate Connell 3 months
Patrick Raftery 7 months
Patrick Paterson 5 months
James Murray 1 month
Colman O’ Loughlin 5 months
Agnes Canavan 18 months
Christina Lynch 15 months
Mary O’Loughlin 6 months
Annie O’ Connor 15 months
John Greally 11 months
Joseph Fenigan 4 years
Mary Connolly 2 months
James Muldoon 4 months
Joseph Madden 3 months
Mary Devaney 18 months
Michael Gannon 6 months
Bridget Cunningham 2 months
Margaret Conneely 18 months
Patrick Warren 8 months
James Mulryan 1 month
Mary Kate Fahey 3 years
Mary Mahon 1 month
Martin Flanagan 1 month
Mary Forde 4 months
Patrick Hannon 20 months
Michael Donellan 6 months
Joseph Ward 7 months
Walter Jordan 3 years
Mary Mullins 1 month
Peter Christian 7 months
Mary Cunningham 5 months
James Ryan 9 months
Patrick O’Donnell 9 months
Mary Monaghan 4 years
Patrick O’Malley 1 year
Philomena Healy 11 months
Michael Ryan 1 year
Patrick Curran 6 months
Patrick Fahy 2 months
Laurence Molloy 5 months
Patrick Lynskey 6 months
Vincent Nally 21 months
Mary Grady 18 months
Martin Gould 21 months
Patrick Kelly 2 months
Bridget Quinn 1 year
William Reilly 9 months
George Lestrange 7 months
Christy Walshe 15 months
Margaret Mary Gagen 1 year
Patrick Moran 4 months
Celia Healy 5months
James Quinn 4 years
Bridget Walsh 15months
Patrick Shiels 4 months
Mary Teresa Drury 1 year
Peter O’Brien 18 months
Peter Malone 18 months
Carmel Moylan 8 months
Mary Burke 10 months
Mary Josephine Garvey 5 months
Mary Warde 10 months
Catherine Howley 9 months
Michael Pat McKenna 3 months
Richard Raftery 3 months
Margaret Doorhy 8 months
Patrick Leonard 9 months
Mary Coyne 1 year
Mary Kate Walsh 2 years
Christina Burke 1 year
Mary Margaret Jordan 18 months
John Joseph McCann 8 months
Teresa McMullan 1 year
George Gavin 1 year
Joseph O’Boyle 2 months
Peter Nash 1 year
Bridget Galvin 3 months
Margaret Niland 3 years
Christina Quinn 3 months
Kathleen Cloran 9 years
Annie Sullivan 8 months
Patricia Judge 1 year
Mary Birmingham 9 months
Laurence Hill 11 months
Brendan Patrick Pender 1 month
Kate Fitzmaurice 4 months
Baby Mulkerrins 5 days
Angela Madden 3 months
Mary McDonagh 1 year
Mary C Shaughnessy 1 month
Mary Moloney 11 months
Patrick Joseph Brennan 1 months
Anthony O’Toole 2 months
Mary Cloherty 9days
Joseph Fahy 10 months
Mary Finola Cunniffe 6 months
Martin Cassidy 5 months
Francis Walsh 3 months
Mary Garvey 4 months
Kathleen Gilchrist 8 months
Mary Kate Walsh 1 months
Eileen Fallon 18 months
Harry Leonard 3 years
Mary Kate Guilfoyle 3 months
John Callinan 3 months
John Kilmartin 2 months
Julia Shaughnessy 3 months
Patrick Prendergast 6 months
Bridgid Holland 2 months
Bridgid Moran 15 months
Margaret Mary Fahy 15 months
Bridgid Ryan 9 months
Mary Brennan 4 months
Mary Conole 1 months
John Flattery 2 years
Margaret Donohue 10 months
Joseph Dunn 3 years
Owen Lenane 2 months
Josephine Steed 3 months
Mary Meeneghan 3 months
James McIntyre 4 months
John Joseph Murphy 4 months
Margaret Mary O’Gara 2 months
Eileen Butler 2 months
Thomas Molloy 2 months
James Joseph Bodkin 6 months
John Kelly 2 months
Mary Walshe 6 months
Mary Jo Colohan 4 months
Florence Conneely 7 months
Norah McCann 1 months
Mary Kelly 9 months
Rose O’Dowd 6 months
Mary Egan 4 months
Michael Concannon 4 months
Paul Joyce 10 months
Mary Christina Kennedy 4 months
Bridget Finnegan 2 months
Mary Flaherty 3 months
Thomas McDonagh 4 months
Joseph Hoey 1 year
Sheila Tuohy 9 years
Teresa Cunniffe 3 months
Joseph Clohessy 2 months
Mary Kiely 4 months
Thomas Cloran 6 months
Mary Burke 3 months
Mary Marg Flaherty 4 months
John Keane 17 days
Luke Ward 15 months
Mary O’Reilly 5 months
Ellen Mountgomery 18 months
Mary Elizabeth Lydon 4 months
Brigid Madden 1 month
Mary Margaret Murphy 4 months
Mary Nealon 7 months
Stephen Linnane 4 months
Josephine Walsh 1 years
Kate Cunningham 2 months
Mary Bernadet Hibbett 1 month
Thomas Linnane 4 months
Patrick Lane 3 months
Mary Anne Conway 2 months
James Kane 8 months
Christopher Leech 3 months
Elizabeth Ann McCann 5 months
Margaret Mary Coen 2 months
Michael Linnane 15months
Bridget Glenane 5 weeks
John O’Toole 7 months
John Creshal 4 months
Mary Teresa Egan 3 months
Michael Boyle 3 months
Anthony Mannion 6 weeks
Donald Dowd 5 months
Peter Ridge 4 months
Eileen Collins 2 months
Mary Brennan 2 months
James Fahy 5 months
Mary Bridget Larkin 8 months
Margaret Scanlon 3 years
Brian O’Malley 4 months
Michael Madden 6 months
Mary Kate Cahill 2 weeks
Mary Margaret Lydon 3 months
Festus Sullivan 1 month
Annie Curley 3 weeks
Nuala Lydon 5 months
Bridget Collins 5 weeks
Patrick Joseph Coleman 1 month
Joseph Hannon 6 weeks
Henry Monaghan 3 weeks
Michael Joseph Shiels 7 weeks
Martin Sheridan 5 weeks
John Patrick Loftus 10 months
Patrick Joseph Murphy 3 months
Catherine McHugh 4 months
Mary Patricia Toher 4 months
Mary Kate Sheridan 4 months
Mary Flaherty 19 months
Mary Anne Walsh 14 months
Eileen Quinn 2 years
Patrick Burke 9 months
Margaret Holland 2 days
Joseph Langan 6 months
Sabina Pauline O’Grady 6 months
Patrick Qualter 3 years
Mary King 5 months
Eileen Conry 1 year
Mary Nee 4 months
Martin Andrew Larkin 14 months
Mary Keane 3 weeks
Kathleen V Cuffe 6 months
Margaret Linnane 4 months
Teresa Heneghan 3 months
John Neary 7 months
Patrick Madden 4 months
Mary Cafferty 2 months
Mary Kate Keane 3 months
Patrick Hynes 3 weeks
Annie Solan 2 months
Charles Lydon 9 months
Margaret Mullins 7 months
Mary Mulligan 2 months
Anthony Lally 5 months
Joseph Spelman 6 weeks
Annie Begley 3 months
Vincent Egan 1 week
Nora Murphy 5 months
Patrick Garvey 6 months
Patricia Burke 4 months
Winifred Barret 2 years
Agnes Marron 3 months
Christopher Kennedy 5 months
Patrick Harrington 1 week
Kathleen Devine 2 years
Vincent Garaghan 1 month
Ellen Gibbons 6 months
Michael McGrath 4 months
Edward Fraser 3 months
Bridget Lally 1 year
Patrick McLoughlin 5 months
Martin Healy 4 months
Nora Duffy 3 months
Margaret Higgins 1 week
Patrick Egan 6 months
Vincent Farragher 11 months
Patrick Joseph Jordan 3 months
Michael Hanley 1 month
Catherine Gilmore 3 months
Baby Carney 1 day
Annie Coyne 3 months
Helena Cosgrave 5 months
Thomas Walsh 2 months
Baby Walsh 1 day
Kathleen Hession 4 months
Brigid Hurley 11 months
Ellen Beegan 2 months
Mary Keogh 1 year
Bridget Burke 3 months
Martin Reilly 9 months
Martin Hughes 11 months
Mary Connolly 1 month
Mary Kate Ruane 1 month
Joseph Mulchrone 3 months
Michael Williams 14 months
Martin Moran 7 weeks
Josephine Mahony 2 months
James Henry 5 weeks
Bridget Staunton 5 months
John Creaven 2 weeks
Peter Lydon 6 weeks
Patrick Joseph Ruane 4 months
Michael Quinn 8 months
Julia Coen 1 week
Annie McAndrew 5 months
John Walsh 3 months
Patrick Flaherty 6 months
Bernadette Purcell 2 years
Joseph Macklin 1 day
Thomas Duffy 2 days
Elizabeth Fahy 4 months
James Kelly 2 months
Nora Gallagher 4 months
Kathleen Cannon 4 months
Winifred Tighe 8 months
Christopher Williams 1 year
Joseph Lynch 1 year
Andrew McHugh 15 months
William Glennan 18 months
Michael J Kelly 5 months
Patrick Gallagher 3 months
Michael Gerard Keane 2 months
Ellen Lawless 6 months
Mary Finn 3 months
Martin Timlin 3 months
Mary McLoughlin 1 month
Mary Brennan 5 months
Patrick Dominic Egan 1 month
Nora Thornton 17 months
Anne Joyce 1 year
Catherine Kelly 10 months
Michael Monaghan 8 months
Simon John Hargraves 6 months
Baby Forde 1 day
Joseph Byrne 2 months
Patrick Hegarty 4 months
Patrick Corcoran 1 month
James Leonard 16 days
Jane Gormley 22 days
Anne Ruane 11 days
Patrick Munnelly 3 months
John Lavelle 6 weeks
Patrick Ruane 24 days
Patrick Joseph Quinn 3 months
Joseph Kennelly 15 days
Kathleen Monaghan 3 months
Baby Quinn 2 days
Anthony Roche 4 months
Annie Roughneen 3 weeks
Anne Kate O’Hara 4 months
Patrick Joseph Nevin 3 months
John Joseph Hopkins 3 months
Thomas Gibbons 1 month
Winifred McTigue 7 months
Thomas Joseph Begley 2 months
Kathleen Heneghan 25 days
Elizabeth Murphy 4 months
Nora Farnan 1 month
Teresa Tarpey 1 month
Margaret Carey 11 months
John Garvey 6 weeks
Bridget Goldrick 4 months
Bridget White 3 months
Noel Slattery 1 month
Mary T Connaughton 4 months
Nora McCormack 6 weeks
Joseph Hefferon 5 months
Mary Higgins 9 days
Mary Farrell 21 days
Mary McDonnell 1 month
Geraldine Cunniffe 11 weeks
Michael Mannion 3 months
Bridget McHugh 7 months
Mary McEvady 18 months
Helena Walsh 3 months
William McDoell 2 days
Michael Finn 14 months
Mary Murphy 10 months
Gertrude Glynn 6 months
Joseph Flaherty 7 weeks
Mary O’Malley 4 years
John P Callanan 13 days
Baby McDonnell 1 day
Female McDonnell 1 day
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Stephen Connolly 8 months
Mary Atkinson 6 months
Mary Anne Finegan 7 weeks
Francis Richardson 15 months
Michael John Rice 6 months
Nora Carr 4 months
William Walsh 16 months
Vincent Cunnane 14 months
Eileen Coady 10 months
Female Roache 1 day
Male Roache 1 day
Patrick Flannery 2 months
John Dermody 3 months
Margaret Spellman 4 months
Austin Nally 3 months
Margaret Dolan 3 months
Vincent Finn 9 months
Bridget Grogan 6 months
Thomas Patrick Cloran 9 weeks
Catherine Devere 1 month
Mary Josephine Glynn 1 day
Annie Connolly 9 months
Martin Cosgrove 7 weeks
Catherine Cunningham 2 years
Bridget Hardiman 2 months
Mary Grier 5 months
Mary P McCormick 2 months
Brendan Muldoon 5 weeks
Nora Moran 7 months
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Teresa Dooley 3 months
Daniel Tully 7 months
Brendan Durkan 1 month
Sheila O’Connor 3 months
Annie Coen 6 months
Patrick J Kennedy 6 days
Thomas Walsh 2 months
Patrick Rice 1 year
Edward McGowan 10 months
Brendan Egan 10 months
Margaret McDonagh 1 month
Annie J Donellan 10 months
Thomas Walsh 14 days
Bridget Quinn 6 months
Mary Mulkerins 5 weeks
Kathleen Parkinson 10 months
Sheila Madeline Flynn 4 months
Patrick Joseph Maloney 2 months
Bridget Carney 7 months
Mary M O’Connor 6 months
Joseph Geraghty 3 months
Annie Coen 10 months
Martin Joseph Feeney 4 months
Anthony Finnegan 3 months
Patrick Coady 3 months
Baby Cunningham 1 day
Annie Fahy 3 months
Baby Byrne 1 day
Patrick Mullaney 18 months
Thomas Connelly 3 months
Mary Larkin 2 months
Margaret Kelly 4 months
Barbara McDonagh 4 months
Mary O’Brien 4 months
Keiran Hennelly 14 months
Annie Folan 4 months
Baby McNamara 1 day
Julia Murphy 3 months
John Rockford 4 months
Vincent Geraghty 1 year
Male O’Brien 2 days
Anthony Deane 2 days
Mary Teresa O’Brien 15 days
John Connelly 3 months
Bridget Murphy 3 months
Patricia Dunne 2 months
Francis Kinahan 1 month
Joseph Sweeney 20 days
Josephine O’Hagan 6 months
Patrick Lavin 1 month
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Kate Agnes Moore 2 months
Kevin Kearns 15 months
Thomas Doocey 15 months
William Conneely 8 months
Margaret Spelman 16 months
Mary Kate Cullen 22 months
Kathleen Brown 3 years
Julia Kelly 19 months
Mary Connolly 7 years
Catherine Harrison 2 years
Eileen Forde 21 months
Michael Monaghan 2 years
Mary Frances Lenihan 3 days
Anthony Byrne 6 months
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John Kelly 6 days
Joseph O’Brien 18 months
Anthony Hyland 3 months
Male Murray 1 day
Female Murray 1 day
Joseph F McDonnell 11 days
Mary Walsh 15 months
Baby Glynn 1 day
James Gaughan 14 months
Margaret Walsh 4 months
Mary P Moran 9 days
John Francis Malone 7 days
Michael F Dempsey 7 weeks
Christina M Greally 4 months
Teresa Donnellan 1 month
Rose Anne King 5 weeks
Christopher J Joyce 2 months
James Mannion 8 months
Mary T Sullivan 3 weeks
Patrick Holohan 11 months
Michael Joseph Keane 1 month
Bridget Keaney 2 months
Joseph Flaherty 8 days
Baby Mahady 3 days
James Rogers 10 days
Kathleen F Taylor 9 months
Gerard C Hogan 7 months
Kathleen Corrigan 2 months
Mary Connolly 3 months
Patrick J Farrell 5 months
Patrick Laffey 3 years
Fabian Hynes 8 months
John Joseph Grehan 2 years
Edward O’Malley 3 months
Mary Fleming 6 months
Bridget F McHugh 3 months
Michael Folan 18 months
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Ellen Nevin 7 months
Margaret Horan 6 months
Peter Mullarky 4 months
Mary P O’Brien 4 months
Teresa Francis O’Brien 4 months
Mary Kennedy 18 months
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Anthony McDonnell 6 months
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John Francis O’Grady 1 month
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Josephine Finnegan 20 months
Martin McGrath 3 days
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James Frayne 1 month
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Mary Davey 2 months
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Angela Dolan 3 months
Mary Lyden 5 months
Bridget Coneely 4 months
Austin O’Toole 4 months
Bernard Laffey 5 months
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Terence O’Boyle 3 months
Mary Frances O’Hara 1 month
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Mary Devaney 3 months
Bridget Foley 6 months
Martin Kilkelly 40 days
Theresa Monica Hehir 6 weeks
Patrick A Mitchell 3 months
John Kearney 5 months
John Joseph Kelly 3 months
John Conneely 4 months
Stephen L O’Toole 2 months
Thomas A Buckley 5 weeks
Michael John Gilmore 3 months
Patrick J Monaghan 3 months
Mary Teresa Murray 2 months
Patrick McKeighe 2 months
John Raymond Feeney 3 months
Finbar Noone 2 months
John O’Brien 21 days
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Mary P Veale 5 weeks
Winifred Gillespie 1 year
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Michael F Sheridan 3 months
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Martin J Kennelly 1 month
Patrick Keaveney 2 months
Philomena Flynn 2 months
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Margaret N Concannon 1 year
Patrick J Fitzpatrick 14days
Joseph Cunningham 2 months
Mary J Flaherty 13 months
Kathleen Murray 3 years
John O’Connell 2 years
Alphonsus Hanley 21 months
Bridget P Muldoon 11 months
Patricia C Higgins 5 months
Catherine B Kennedy 2 months
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Stephen Joynt 2 years
Catherine T Kearns 2 years
Margaret Hurney 2 years
John Patton 2 years
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Nora Hynes 8 months
Anthony Donohue 2 years
Brendan McGreal 1 year
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Kenneth A Ellesmere 1 day
Mary P Carroll 4 months
Thomas Collins 17 months
Margaret M Moloney 3 months
Josephine Tierney 8 months
Margaret M Deasy 3 months
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Baby Kelly 1 day
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Augustine Jordan 9 months
Michael F Dwyer 18 months
Noel C Murphy 14 months
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John Keane 4 months
Mary Burke 9 months
Brigid McTigue 3 months
Margaret R Broderick 8 months
Martin Mannion 3 months
Mary Margaret Riddell 8 months
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Peter Casey 10 months
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Hubert McLoughlin 4 months
Mary M Finnegan 3 months
Nicholas P Morley 3 months
Teresa Bane 6 months
Patrick J Kennedy 5 weeks
Michael Francis Ryan 3 days
John Forde 2 years
Mary P Cunnane 3 months
Margaret P Sheridan 4 months
Patrick Joseph Nevin 3 months
Joseph Nally 5 months
Christopher Burke 3 months
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Thomas Murphy 3 months
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Mary J Mulchrone 3 months
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Thomas McQuaid 4 months
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Martin Hanley 9 weeks
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Colm A McNulty 1 month
Walter Flaherty 3 months
Sarah Burke 15 days
Mary Ann Boyle 5 months
John Anthony Murphy 5 months
Joseph A Colohan 4 months
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Catherine A Meehan 4 months
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Mary J Crehan 3 months
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Anne Heneghan 3 months
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Martin Murphy 5 months
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Mary Ann Broderick 14 months
Ann Marian Fahy 4 months
Anne Dillon 4 months
Imelda Halloran 2 years
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Mary C Rafferty 3 months
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Joseph Dempsey 3 months
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Mary C Burke 3 years
Patrick Burke 1 year
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