Category: Politics

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On ‘celebratory racism’

Social controversies are frequently seized upon by bigots. In Britain, for example, the immediate aftermath of the Brexit referendum saw a sharp increase in racist incidents, with reports of people being harassed on the street, jeered at in shops, and barracked at passport control in airports. There is even a name for this unleashing of gleeful bigotry. Paul Bagguley, a sociologist at Leeds University, calls it “celebratory racism.”

You see, racists do celebrate. They do so whenever they have some kind of ‘victory’, an occasion that allows them to revel in the sheer discomfort of mainstream society.

Psychologists will tell you that celebrations fulfil important social functions. They solidify social bonds, bolster the identity of the in-group, and communicate group-level encouragement to your fellows, especially during times of stress. In other words, celebration is itself a tool of social manipulation.

You celebrate in order to collaborate.

Celebratory racism, then, is team-building for bigots. A spontaneous outpouring of hysteria designed to advance the racist cause.

* * *

This week’s news from Oughterard — where protesters succeeded in blocking an accommodation centre for asylum seekers from being opened in their village — was greeted with people cheering at the village’s picket line. One reporter explicitly described the atmosphere as one of “celebration”.

The organisers of the Oughterard protests have repeatedly told journalists that they are not racists. Instead, their objections to the Direct Provision centre are described as relating to the “inhumane conditions for asylum seekers” that such a centre would offer.

But online, few people celebrating the outcome seemed concerned about the inhumanity of Ireland’s Direct Provision system. By and large, reactions were more along the following lines:

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I actually gathered several similar examples, but in the spirit of not-feeding-the-trolls, I have decided against publishing them here.

But I will point out that they often included full-blown Nazi:

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@RTÉNews: Plans to turn a former hotel in Co Galway into a Direct Provision centre have been abandoned, following protests by people in Oughterard | bit.ly/2oTWqh7

@[REDACTED NAME]: 1488

Readers not up to speed on neofascist semiotics might be wondering what “1488” even means. Here is an explanation from the Anti-Defamation League:

1488 is a combination of two popular white supremacist numeric symbols. The first symbol is 14, which is shorthand for the “14 Words” slogan: “We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children.” The second is 88, which stands for “Heil Hitler” (H being the 8th letter of the alphabet). Together, the numbers form a general endorsement of white supremacy and its beliefs.

As such, they are ubiquitous within the white supremacist movement – as graffiti, in graphics and tattoos, even in screen names and e-mail addresses, such as aryanprincess1488@hate.net. Some white supremacists will even price racist merchandise, such as t-shirts or compact discs, for $14.88.

In other words, “1488” is international code for:

Protect white people!”

And:

“Heil Hitler!”

Fascists online often speak in code. They do it partly to disguise their views, partly to communicate with like-minded bigots on Twitter, but most of all they do it for fun. A bit of neofascist craic.

It’s the psychology of tribalism. The shared language, the codes and the symbols, even the high-vis vests, are all part of the social identity that ties these racists together.

* * *

Ordinary mainstream Irish people — including many good citizens of Oughterard who were so dismissive of anyone who criticised their protest — really do need to wise up.

We’re talking about white supremacists, expressing solidarity with you. Supporting your cause. Involving themselves in your meetings.

And participating in your celebrations.

Not only were the Oughterard protesters “jubilant” and in “high spirits” after news broke that the Direct Provision centre had been abandoned, they even organised a party to celebrate their ‘victory’ — at one point live-streaming it on their notorious Facebook page:

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Michael Clifford in the Irish Examiner was appropriately judgmental:

The whooping and hollering was in bad taste. Last Tuesday, protestors outside the former Connemara Gateway Hotel near the village of Oughterard were letting it rip. They were thrilled that their two-week protest had succeeded.

The owner of the premises had bowed to pressure and withdrawn his tender to house a direct provision centre there.

The protesters claimed their glee was directed at the Department of Justice, the Government, the system. But the reality is that the spontaneous joy also sent a message to some of the most vulnerable people on the planet. Any asylum seeker aware of the scenario would be compelled to conclude that they were not welcome in Oughterard.

The on-the-ground protest organisers remain adamant that nothing could have been further from their minds.

* * *

The Oughterard protesters see themselves in a positive light. But their protests have undoubtedly energised a burgeoning fascist fringe in wider Irish society.

Last week we saw horrendous online attacks directed at a mixed-race Irish couple who appeared, with their child, in a supermarket advertising campaign.

The overlap with Oughterard was obvious to anyone who follows these events on social media. The trolls gloating about Oughterard were, by and large, the very same trolls who were attacking this family with online abuse and sneers.

As with Brexit, the mainstreaming of anti-immigrant discourse has consequences beyond the immediate moment. It lowers the social bar. It threatens to liberate a freshly enthused wave of public bigotry.

For a certain type of person, celebratory racism is addictive. When it comes to getting high on gleeful bigotry, these folks are complete junkies. It’s only a matter of time before they are looking for another fix.

So when exactly is Ireland going to get serious about racism?

It will need to be soon.

In the meantime, however, be prepared for more Oughterards.

Fact-checking the racists: A look at the psychological approach of Ireland’s alt-right

oughterard

Releasing the Genie

Notwithstanding frantic after-the-fact efforts to rehabilitate the town’s reputation, there is little doubt that alt-right/far-right extremists successfully infiltrated that public meeting in Oughterard.

The townspeople currently protesting the proposed Direct Provision facility (Ireland’s version of an asylum seeker reception centre) are not members of any far-right organisation. They are just ordinary citizens.

However, these ordinary citizens wouldn’t be protesting were it not for organised efforts by far-right extremists to provoke them into doing so.

They wouldn’t be there — holding signs and patrolling the grounds, twenty-four hours a day — if not for a co-ordinated campaign of far-right fear-mongering, deliberately designed to infuse xenophobia into what was previously a harmonious and peaceful rural community.

Let me be specific:

  • TV crews were not allowed to film inside the meeting. However, the meeting was filmed by a prominent far-right vlogger, who posted videos of proceedings online. He travelled to Oughterard specifically for the event.
  • I have been told that buses with people from outside Oughterard arrived in advance of the meeting. Recall that up to then the meeting was publicised mainly on Facebook, via a page moderated by people with far-right links.
  • A ‘fact’ sheet was circulated to attendees, which contained highly misleading information about asylum seekers (more on this below), suggesting an organised effort at co-ordinated messaging.
  • The chair of the local branch of the far-right National Party spoke at the meeting. He did not, however, introduce himself as a representative of that party, but rather presented himself as a concerned ordinary local person.
  • The tone and content of speeches, and that of the ‘fact’ sheet, completely belie any claim that the organisers were concerned about the “inhumane” nature of Ireland’s Direct Provision system. In fact, there was no mention of the word “inhumane” in the campaign until after the Oughterard meeting had begun to attract negative media attention. The Facebook page was originally called ‘Stop Connemara Gateway Hotel Direct Provision Centre.’ After the controversy exploded, it changed its name, becoming ‘Oughterard Says No to Inhumane Direct Provision Centre.’

* * *

A Useful Idiot

So how exactly did the alt-right succeed in creating so much turmoil in a previously ordinary rural Irish community? Psychologists have been studying the alt-right, and their far-right predecessors, for many years. As always, these people follow a well-worn playbook. The unsettling reality is that, around the world, their tactics are consistently successful.

At the Oughterard meeting, member of the Irish parliament Noel Grealish became notorious for his racist remarks. Among other slurs, he claimed that “Africans” seeking asylum were in fact “economic migrants” coming to “sponge off the system here in Ireland.” He was particularly concerned that these asylum seekers were not “Christians.”

I doubt Grealish had read the psychological research. Nonetheless, without prodding, he successfully spouted off a burst of soundbites straight from the alt-right playbook. Around the world, the far right succeed most when they dehumanise out-groups, focus on how “we” are losing out or are being “betrayed, normalise anti-African hostility, and promote an authoritarian focus on rules and rule-breaking. Grealish did all of this, in a rural Irish accent.

It may seem a bit churlish to point this out, but on his personal website, the very same Noel Grealish describes how many of his own family are themselves economic migrants:

Like so many in the West of Ireland, many of the Grealish family had to emigrate in search of work — at one point there were seven of them abroad, and currently Noel has three siblings living in Boston and one each in Copenhagen, Chicago and Nebraska.

However, as I stated previously, Grealish is just a patsy. A gullible loudmouth willing to throw pre-election fuel on a fire lit by cleverer, less visible actors. A good example of what people who study political extremism refer to as “a useful idiot.”

Grealish takes all the flak, while the Facebook fascists leave town unscathed and move on to their next campaign.

* * *

Whoever Controls the Narrative Wins the Day

The key to turning a crowd is to get in early. Psychologists call this the primacy effect. It doesn’t matter if your facts are spurious. The research shows that once a community’s fears have been stoked, the bad feeling can be very hard to remove. Lies have a much longer half-life than truth.

People are more likely to believe the stuff they hear first, and less likely to accept the contradictions that come later. We stick to initial information even when we are presented with evidence that it is wrong. In fact, when challenged, we often dig in and become defensive, a problem psychologists refer to as backfire.

Conspiracy theorists have convinced millions of people around the world that climate change is not real, that vaccinations are dangerous, and that the Holocaust never happened. Heck, some people still believe that the earth is flat.

This is the psychology of mass evidentiary reasoning. By nature, human beings are trusting. Their default reaction is to believe. It is why eye-witness testimony is so compelling (even though we all know that hearsay is unreliable), and why misinformation spreads so widely.

The residents of Oughterard are not stupid. They are simply human.

When we hear speakers at a meeting, we presume they know what they are talking about. People who are skilled at manipulating public opinion play on this tendency. In short, they knowingly lie to us, aware that most of us will take their words at face value.

We are all susceptible to being influenced by this effect.

The default belief-reaction is a key psychological factor that enables the alt-right to pursue their racist agenda. In practice, the task is straightforward: attend a meeting, mouth some extravagant claims, and let the audience’s belief-response run amok. If you nudge the narrative correctly, the crowd’s natural reactions will do most of the real work. Before you know it, tempers are flaring and chaos has been unleashed.

It’s basically intellectual hooliganism. Pile in, get the blood boiling, and stand back and watch the carnage.

* * *

Manufacturing ‘Truthiness’

It sounds obvious, but an audience will trust information if they believe it to be true. The best way to achieve that is through presentation. Make the information look ‘official’. Make it look real.

Make it look scientific. Provide lots of charts, numbers, and jargon. Refer to ‘official’ reports. Use numbers. Numbers are particularly effective (I’ve written elsewhere about the power of illusory precision). Throw in some percentages and decimal points. After all that, people will just assume you have done your due diligence.

This imitation of accuracy, in the absence of actual accuracy, is called pseudoscience. I’ve been writing about pseudoscience for years. From dubious advertising, to conspiracy theories, to common myths and prejudices, the world is absolutely full of it. Data in the absence of fact-checking. Opinion without transparency. So-called ‘information’ produced with zero quality control.

And so here we have Exhibit A: The Alt-Right’s Oughterard ‘Fact’ Sheet, the flier handed to people as they turned up at the door:

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Very quickly, here are some points:

  • No information is presented on who produced this ‘Fact’ Sheet. It is anonymous.
  • The content, however, resembles that of a notorious YouTube video popularly associated with the alt-right in Ireland. The maker of that video was present, in person, at the meeting.
  • Note that there is no mention of the “inhumane” nature of Ireland’s Direct Provision system. Remember, that idea came later, only after negative media attention.
  • In the section on ‘Dubious Claims’, it is stated that most of Ireland’s asylum seekers come from countries like Georgia, Albania, and even Pakistan (note: while these countries might be deemed ‘safe’, it is still possible to be persecuted in each). If anything, this should imply that the numbers coming from African countries are relatively low. So why then did most of the Oughterard meeting focus on “Africans”?
  • The section on ‘Never Deported’ implies that 90% of asylum applications in Ireland “fail”. This is factually inaccurate. Only 15% of decisions on asylum applications are rejected. There is a big difference between 90% and 15%, so we cannot put this divergence down to a margin-of-error problem. It’s just a lie.
  • The section on ‘Single Men’ simply tells us that some asylum seekers are, well, single men. As explained above, the allusion here is to sex crime. The only purpose of this information is to plant the seeds of rape paranoia in the audience.
  • The section on ‘Money Racket’ presents some out-of-context spending figures, combining periods of twelve, and then five, years. There is no baseline comparison (in other words, does this expenditure represent good or bad value?). In public expenditure terms, the monies involved seem small. For example, the revenue to Fazyard suggests that the system costs around 10 cent per taxpayer every month. This type of detail should matter much more than some Clip Art of a sack of money. But psychologically, Clip Art is more effective.
  • The section on ‘Stretched Resources’ talks about schools and police stations. However, this is all based on a status quo error (specifically: if children were placed into Direct Provision in Oughterard, the local school would be funded to recruit more teachers, special-needs assistants, and so on). This section also complains about planning permission. However, as I pointed out before, the population of Oughterard is already expanding without controversy. New houses for hundreds of inhabitants have recently been approved, and there were no protests about schools or police stations when they were announced.

It is not the anti-racism campaigners who believe that ordinary people are stupid. It’s the alt-right who do that: they freely put forward bogus factoids and junk stats with the clear expectation that local people will be so dumb as to just gullibly lap it all up.

Please concentrate on this. Spread the word. These alt-right/far-right agitators believe that YOU are stupid. In fact, this belief is their core working assumption.

Awareness is key. The alt-right rely on the mainstream media to report the fuss they cause, to describe their grievances, but also — crucially — to gloss over their racism.

I’ve said it before and I’m sure I’ll say it again.

The people of Oughterard really do deserve better than this.

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